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Females of Onchocerca spp. that do not form nodules and which have retained a well-developed somatic musculature [e.g. O. gutturosa (Franz et al., 1987)] are probably not as active as L. loa, but nevertheless, may retain the ability to dislodge host effector cells by sloughing and thus express a variation of the first strategy. Chodnik (1957) suggested that O. armillata is a motile species due to the many vacant tunnels within histological sections. This is in accordance with the histological observations and the experience of manual extraction of adult worms from the aorta wall in our study. Furthermore, the musculature of adult O. armillata female worms is prominent (Franz et al., 1987), and the immunological reaction described in the current study (i.e., dominated by macrophages and giant cells, with small numbers of granulocytes more distant) is similar to that reported for O. gutturosa, although it may be less intense (Wildenburg et al., 1997). The vascular injury noted here and also by Chodnik (1957) provides further support for a nomadic lifestyle for O. armillata. However, definite evidence to support this hypothesis has not been obtained, as it would be extremely difficult to visualise adult worms in vivo in the deep anatomical location of the aorta.
Hinari Lifestyle Microwave Oven With Grill Manual